Purification and characterisation of relevant natural and recombinant apple allergens

Christina Oberhuber, Yan Ma, Justin Marsh, Neil Rigby, Ursula Smole, Christian Radauer, Stefano Alessandri, Peter Briza, Laurian Zuidmeer, Bernhard Maderegger, Martin Himly, Ana I. Sancho, Ronald Van Ree, André Knulst, Christof Ebner, Peter Shewry, E. N Clare Mills, Klaus Wellner, Heimo Breiteneder, Karin Hoffmann-SommergruberMerima Bublin

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Apple (Malus domestica) is the most widely cultivated fruit crop in Europe and frequently causes allergic reactions with a variable degree of severity. So far, four apple allergens Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 have been identified. Mal d 1, a Bet v 1 related allergen, and Mal d 4, apple profilin, are sensitive to proteolytic degradation, whereas Mal d 2, a thaumatin-like protein and Mal d 3, a nonspecific lipid transfer protein, are rather stable to proteolytic processes. Mal d 1 and Mal d 4 were purified after expression in Escherichia coli expression system, while Mal d 2 and Mal d 3 were purified from apple fruit tissue. All purified proteins were subjected to detailed physicochemical characterisation to confirm their structural integrity and maintained IgE binding capacity. Detailed investigations of carbohydrate moieties of Mal d 2 demonstrated their involvement in the overall IgE binding capacity of this allergen. It was concluded that the folded structure and IgE binding capacity of all four allergens were preserved during purification. © 2008 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)S208-S219
    JournalMolecular Nutrition and Food Research
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2008


    • Apple
    • Apple allergens
    • Food allergens
    • Malus domestica
    • PR proteins


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