Reactivity of chemical respiratory allergens in the Peroxidase Peptide Reactivity Assay

J. F. Lalko, R. J. Dearman, G. F. Gerberick, J. A. Troutman, A. M. Api, I. Kimber

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Sensitizing chemicals are commonly associated primarily with either skin or respiratory sensitization. In the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA), when compared with skin sensitizers, respiratory allergens have been demonstrated to selectively react with lysine rather than cysteine. The Peroxidase Peptide Reactivity Assay (PPRA) has been developed as a refinement to the DPRA. The PPRA incorporates dose-response analyses, mass spectroscopy for peptide detection and a horseradish peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide enzymatic system, increasing the potential to identify pro-haptens. In the investigations reported here, the PPRA was evaluated to determine whether it provides advantages for the identification of respiratory allergens. Twenty respiratory sensitizers, including five predicted to be pre-/pro-haptens were evaluated. The PPRA performed similarly to the DPRA with respect to identifying inherently reactive respiratory sensitizers. However, three respiratory sensitizers predicted to be pre-/pro-haptens (chlorhexidine, ethylenediamine and piperazine) were non-reactive and the general selectivity of the respiratory allergens for lysine was lost in the PPRA. Overall, the data indicate that the PPRA does not provide an advantage over the DPRA for discriminating allergens as either contact or respiratory sensitizers. Nevertheless, the PPRA provides a number of refinements to the DPRA that allow for an enhanced characterization of reactivity for both classes of chemical allergens. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)651-661
    Number of pages10
    JournalToxicology in Vitro
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013


    • Chemical allergens
    • Hazard identification
    • Peptide reactivity
    • Respiratory sensitization
    • Skin sensitization


    Dive into the research topics of 'Reactivity of chemical respiratory allergens in the Peroxidase Peptide Reactivity Assay'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this