Reconstructed Malacothermometer July Paleotemperatures from the Last Nine Glacials over the South-Eastern Carpathian Basin (Serbia)

Milica G. Radaković, Eric A. Oches, Philip D. Hughes, Rastko S. Marković, Qingzhen Hao, Zoran M. Perić, Bojan Gavrilović, Patrick Ludwig, Tin Lukić, Milivoj B. Gavrilov, Slobodan B. Marković

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In this study, the compiled malacological record of the two most important loess–palaeosol sequences (LPS) in Serbia was used to reconstruct the Malacothermometer July Paleotemperature (MTJP) of the last nine glacials. The sieved loess samples yielded shells of 11 terrestrial gastropod species that were used to estimate the MTJP. Veliki Surduk (covering the last three glacial cycles) and Stari Slankamen (covering the last fourth to ninth glacial cycle) LPSs previously lacked the malacological investigations. After the sieving, a total of 66,871 shells were found, from which 48,459 shells were used for the estimation of the MTJP. Through the studied period, the reconstructed MTJP was ranging from 14.4 °C to 21.5 °C. The lowest temperature was recorded during the formation of the loess unit L5, equivalent to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12. The second-coldest summers were occurring during the MIS 16 glacial. Although the warmest glacial was L8 (MIS 20) according to MTJP, these July temperatures might be overestimated due to only two samples from the poorly preserved L8 unit. The malacological material derived from the loess units at Veliki Surduk and Stari Slankamen LPSs showed great potential for July temperature reconstruction, as the comparison with other regional records showed similar climate changes. Further work is necessary to validate the age scale of the oldest samples, and a higher resolution sampling could lead to more detailed July temperature fluctuations, as was shown for the youngest glacial in this study. Likewise, estimating the July temperature using different proxies (e.g., pollen) from the same LPSs could be used to confirm the observed climate trends.
Original languageEnglish
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 26 Apr 2023


  • malacofauna
  • Titel loess plateau
  • July temperature
  • Veliki Surduk
  • Stari Slankamen
  • loess
  • Serbia
  • Middle Pleistocene


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