Regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α by nitric oxide through mitochondria-dependent and -independent pathways

Jesús Mateo, Marta García-Lecea, Susana Cadenas, Carlos Hernández, Salvador Moncada

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    Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported both to promote and to inhibit the activity of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). In order to avoid the pitfalls associated with the use of NO donors, we have developed a human cell line (Tet-iNOS 293) that expresses the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Using this system to generate finely controlled amounts of NO, we have demonstrated that the stability of the α-subunit of HIF-1 is regulated by NO through two separate mechanisms, only one of which is dependent on a functional respiratory chain. HIF-1α is unstable in cells maintained at 21% O 2, but is progressively stabilized as the O2 concentration decreases, resulting in augmented HIF-1 DNA-binding activity. High concentrations of NO (> 1 μM) stabilize HIF-1α at all O 2 concentrations tested. This effect does not involve the respiratory chain, since it is preserved in cells lacking functional mitochondria (ρ°-cells) and is not reproduced by other inhibitors of the cytochrome c oxidase. By contrast, lower concentrations of NO (<400 nM) cause a rapid decrease in HIF-1α stabilized by exposure of the cells to 3% O2. This effect of NO is dependent on the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, since it is mimicked by other inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration, including those not acting at cytochrome c oxidase. We suggest that, although stabilization of HIF-1α by high concentrations of NO might have implications in pathophysiological processes, the inhibitory effect of lower NO concentrations is likely to be of physiological relevance.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)537-544
    Number of pages7
    JournalBiochemical Journal
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2003


    • Cytochrome c oxidase
    • Hypoxia
    • Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)
    • Mitochondria
    • Nitric oxide (NO)
    • Oxygen (O2)


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