Response of two gingival cell lines to CAD/CAM composite blocks

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This study aimed to investigate the influence of CAD/CAM composite materials on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and gingival keratinocytes (HGK).

Four materials were investigated: two resin-composite blocks (RCB), Grandio Blocs (GR) and Block HC (HC); one polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) (Enamic, EN); and one conventional resin-composite, Grandioso (GND). HGF and HGK were cultured as per the supplier’s protocol (ATCC, UK). Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were evaluated at 1, 3, 5 and 10 days using LDH and Alamar Blue assays. Indirect immunostaining was used to assess the Caspase-3 activity. Data were analysed via two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test (α = 0.05 for all tests).

There was significant difference in cell proliferation of the HGK and HGF cells in contact with different composite materials but no significant differences in their cytotoxicity. There was a significant effect on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity with different exposure times, for each type of resin-composite. HGF cell proliferation was higher than HGK with almost all investigated materials and at all time points. No Caspase-3 activity was detected in either cell lines.

HGK proliferation and cytotoxicity appeared to be more influenced by composite materials compared to HGF, demonstrating EN cytotoxic effects in HGK. Different manufacturing techniques of resin-composites (photo curing versus heat/pressure curing) had no significant effect on their biocompatibility.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1214-1225
Number of pages12
JournalDental Materials
Issue number9
Early online date17 Jun 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020


  • Biocompatibility
  • Cell viability
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Polymer-infiltrated ceramic network
  • Resin-composite blocks


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