Reversal of TREM-1 ectodomain shedding and improved bacterial clearance by intranasal metalloproteinase inhibitors

Gudrun Weiss, Cheryl Lai, Mark E Fife, Aleksander M Grabiec, Bernadett Tildy, Robert J Snelgrove, Gang Xin, Clare M Lloyd, Tracy Hussell

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is expressed on neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages and amplifies Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammation during infection. TREM-1 also exists in an antagonistic soluble form (sTREM-1) that has been used as a peripheral biomarker in sepsis, though the mechanisms of its release are not entirely clear. The requirement of TREM-1 in single microbial infections is controversial, with some studies showing a protective role and others a contribution to immunopathology. Furthermore, the role of membrane–bound and sTREM-1 in polygenic infections is currently unknown. In a mouse co-infection model where preceding viral infection greatly enhances bacteria co-infection, we now determine a mechanisms for the striking increase in sTREM-1 and the loss of TREM-1 on surface of neutrophils. We identified a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 cleavage site in TREM-1 and that the increase of MMP-9 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid mirrors sTREM-1 release. In vitro studies with neutrophils and MMP-9 and the reduction of sTREM-1 in vivo after MMP-9 inhibition verifies that this enzyme cleaves TREM-1. Intriguingly, MMP-9 inhibition significantly reduces bacterial load and ensuing immunopathology in a co-infection model. This highlights MMP-9 inhibition as a potential therapeutic via blocking cleavage of TREM-1. 
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalMucosal Immunology
    Early online date14 Dec 2016
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016

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