Risk factors associated with albuminuria in Rwanda: results from a STEPS survey

Candide Tran Ngoc, Prebo Barango, Roger Harrison, Andrew Jones, Steven Velabo Shongwe, Albert Tuyishime, François Uwinkindi, Hongyi Xu, Stephanie Shoop-Worrall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a growing burden which affects every part of the world, including developing countries. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has varied etiology which can result from or complicate other NCDs such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The growing prevalence of NCDs coupled with the increasing age in most developing countries, has seen a marked increase of CKD in these settings. CKD has been described as “the most neglected NCD” and greatly affects the quality of life of patients. It also places a huge economic burden on societies. However, few epidemiological data exist, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Assessment of the prevalence of albuminuria as a marker of kidney damage and CKD progression and its main risk factors was thus needed in Rwanda.
This study analyzed data collected during the first STEPwise approach to NCD risk factor Surveillance (STEPS) survey in Rwanda, conducted from 2012 to 2013, to assess the prevalence of albuminuria. A multistage cluster sampling allowed to select a representative sample of the general population. Furthermore, descriptive, as well as univariable analyses and multiple logistic regression were performed to respond to the research question.
This survey brought a representative sample of 6,998 participants, among which 4,384 (62.65%) were female. Median age was 33 years (interquartile range, IQR 26-44), and over three quarters (78.45%) lived in rural areas. The albuminuria prevalence was 105.9 per 1,000 population. Overall, semi-urban and urban residency were associated with lower odds of CKD (odds ratio, OR 0.36, CI 0.23-0.56, p<0.001 and OR 0.34, CI 0.23-0.50, p<0.001, respectively) than rural status. Being married or living with a partner had higher odds (OR 1.44 (CI 1.03-2.02, p=0.031) and OR 1.62 (CI 1.06-2.48, p=0.026), respectively) of CKD than being single. Odds of positive albuminuria were also greater among participants living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (OR 1.64, CI 1.09- 2.47, p=0.018). Gender, age group, smoking status and vegetable consumption, body mass index (BMI) and hypertension were not associated with albuminuria.
The albuminuria prevalence was estimated at 105.9 per 1,000 in Rwanda. Rural residence, partnered status and HIV positivity were identified as main risk factors for albuminuria. Increased early screening of albuminuria to prevent CKD among high-risk groups, especially HIV patients, is therefore recommended.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBMC Nephrology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 25 Oct 2021


Dive into the research topics of 'Risk factors associated with albuminuria in Rwanda: results from a STEPS survey'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this