Risk factors for infective endocarditis in patients receiving hemodialysis: A propensity score matched cohort study

Saif Al-Chalabi, Tricia Tay, Rajkumar Chinnadurai, Philip A Kalra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In patients receiving hemodialysis, infective endocarditis (IE) may present in a similar way to other causes of bacteremia, which may delay early diagnosis and can lead to worse outcomes. In this study, we aimed to identify the risk factors for IE in hemodialysis patients with bacteremia. This study was conducted on all patients diagnosed with IE and receiving hemodialysis between 2005 and 2018 in Salford Royal Hospital. Patients with IE were propensity score matched with similar hemodialysis patients with episodes of bacteremia between 2011 and 2015 (non-IE bacteremic (NIEB)). Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the risk factors associated with infective endocarditis. There were 35 cases of IE, and these were propensity matched with 70 NIEB cases. The median age of the patients was 65 years with a predominance of males (60%). The IE group had higher peak C-reactive protein compared to the NIEB group (median, 253 mg/L vs. 152, p = 0.001). Patients with IE had a longer duration of prior dialysis catheter use than NIEB patients (150 vs. 28.5 days: p = 0.004). IE patients had a much higher 30-day mortality rate (37.1% vs. 17.1%, p = 0.023). Logistic regression analysis showed previous valvular heart disease (OR: 29.7; p < 0.001), and a higher baseline C-reactive protein (OR: 1.01; p = 0.001) as significant predictors for infective endocarditis. Bacteremia in patients receiving hemodialysis through a catheter access should be actively investigated with a high index of suspicion for infective endocarditis, particularly in those with known valvular heart disease and a higher baseline C-reactive protein.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-59
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Nephrology
Issue number2
Early online date8 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2023


  • bacteremia
  • end-stage kidney disease
  • hemodialysis
  • infective endocarditis
  • propensity score matching


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