INTRODUCTION: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) pandemic revealed the vulnerability of specific population groups in relation to susceptibility to acute deterioration in their health, including hospital admission and mortality. There is less data on outcomes for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) following SARS-CoV-2 infection than for those with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study we set out to determine the relative likelihood of hospital admission following SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with T1D when compared to those without T1D.
METHODS: This study was conducted as a retrospective cohort study and utilised an all-England dataset. Electronic health record data relating to people in a national England database (NHS England's Secure Data Environment, accessed via the BHF Data Science Centre's CVD-COVID-UK/COVID-IMPACT consortium) were analysed. The cohort consisted of patients with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the exposure was whether or not an individual had T1D prior to infection (77,392 patients with T1D). The patients without T1D were matched for sex, age and approximate date of the positive COVID-19 test, with three SARS-CoV-2-infected people living without diabetes (n = 223,995). Potential factors influencing the relative likelihood of the outcome of hospital admission within 28 days were ascertained using univariable and multivariable logistic regression.
RESULTS: Median age of the people living with T1D was 37 (interquartile range 25-52) years, 47.4% were female and 89.6% were of white ethnicity. Mean body mass index was 27 (standard error [SE] 0.022) kg/m 2, and mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was 67.3 (SE 0.069) mmol/mol (8.3%). A significantly higher proportion of people with T1D (10.7%) versus matched non-diabetes individuals (3.9%) were admitted to hospital. In combined analysis including individuals with T1D and matched controls, multiple regression modelling indicated that the factors independently relating to a higher likelihood of hospital admission were: T1D (odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-1.80]), age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.02-1.03), social deprivation (higher Townsend deprivation score: OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.08), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) value (OR 0.975, 95% CI 0.974-0.976), non-white ethnicity (OR black 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.33/OR Asian 1.21, 95% CI 1.05-1.39) and having asthma (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.19-1.35]), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.89-2.32), severe mental illness (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.57-2.12) or hypertension (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.37-1.52).
CONCLUSION: In this all-England study, we describe that, following confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, the risk factors for hospital admission for people living with T1D are similar to people without diabetes following confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, although the former were more likely to be admitted to hospital. The younger age of individuals with T1D in relation to risk stratification must be taken into account in any ongoing risk reduction strategies regarding COVID-19/future viral pandemics.
- Type 1 diabetes