Secondary flexibility market mechanism design and response behaviour analysis among multi-microgrids with high proportional BTM-RERs

Yunfeng Ma, Chao Zhang, Zengqiang Mi, Long Zhang, Alessandra Parisio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


As the proportion of behind-the-meter (BTM) renewable energy resources (RERs)
in the distribution network continues to rise, the precise role of RERs in the flexibility market, whether as “Recipients” or “Providers”, is becoming less distinct. This observation has led us to explore the integration of flexible load resources and RERs into flexibility markets. Such integration facilitates resource sharing among multiple microgrids (MGs). This paper focuses on the potential emergence of a secondary flexibility (SecFlex) market in the power sector among high proportional BTM-RERs microgrids. Within the concept of SecFlex market, this paper outlines a comprehensive process supporting secondary flexibility trading, which includes “SecFlex market organization–trading volume collation–response schedule optimiaztion”. At first, the market mechanism of the SecFlex market is proposed, where players submit an empirical load curve to the market organizer. During the clearing stage, a social welfare equilibrium problem is solved. Subsequently, the equilibrium trading volume is adjusted in the collation stage to account for the distribution network (DN) voltage magnitude balance. Finally, a response schedule strategy is designed to analyze the behaviors of the players. The cvxpy framework is used to solve social welfare and competitive equilibrium in this paper. The results show significant cost reductions for two players, by 77.8% and 24.0% respectively. However, costs for Player 3 have increased substantially, up to 4.6 times the baseline when flexibility is limited. These findings provide theoretical guidance for the development of the SecFlex market.
Original languageEnglish
Article number123345
JournalApplied Energy
Early online date14 May 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 14 May 2024


  • behind-the-meter
  • market mechanism
  • flexibility service
  • multi-microgrids
  • Renewable energy resources


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