Selective inhibition of casein kinase 1ε minimally alters circadian clock period

Kevin M. Walton, Katherine Fisher, David Rubitski, Michael Marconi, Qing Jun Meng, Martin Sládek, Jessica Adams, Michael Bass, Rama Chandrasekaran, Todd Butler, Matt Griffor, Francis Rajamohan, Megan Serpa, Yuhpyng Chen, Michelle Claffey, Michael Hastings, Andrew Loudon, Elizabeth Maywood, Jeffrey Ohren, Angela DoranTravis T. Wager

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    The circadian clock links our daily cycles of sleep and activity to the external environment. Deregulation of the clock is implicated in a number of human disorders, including depression, seasonal affective disorder, and metabolic disorders. Casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1ε) and casein kinase 1 delta (CK1δ) are closely related Ser-Thr protein kinases that serve as key clock regulators as demonstrated by mammalian mutations in each that dramatically alter the circadian period. Therefore, inhibitors of CK1δ/ε may have utility in treating circadian disorders. Although we previously demonstrated that a pan-CK1δ/ε inhibitor, 4-[3-cyclohexyl-5-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-3H-imidazol-4-yl]-pyrimidin-2-ylamine (PF-670462), causes a significant phase delay in animal models of circadian rhythm, it remains unclear whether one of the kinases has a predominant role in regulating the circadian clock. To test this, we have characterized 3-(3-chloro-phenoxymethyl)-1-(tetrahydro-pyran-4-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[ 3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamine (PF-4800567), a novel and potent inhibitor of CK1ε (IC50 = 32 nM) with greater than 20-fold selectivity over CK1δ. PF-4800567 completely blocks CK1ε-mediated PER3 nuclear localization and PER2 degradation. In cycling Rat1 fibroblasts and a mouse model of circadian rhythm, however, PF-4800567 has only a minimal effect on the circadian clock at concentrations substantially over its CK1ε IC 50. This is in contrast to the pan-CK1δ/ε inhibitor PF-670462 that robustly alters the circadian clock under similar conditions. These data indicate that CK1ε is not the predominant mediator of circadian timing relative to CK1δ. PF-4800567 should prove useful in probing unique roles between these two kinases in multiple signaling pathways. Copyright © 2009 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)430-439
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Aug 2009


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