Simulated, Stimulated, and Emulated Presence in 3D Digital Museums

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter explores how presence is understood and experienced in 3D digital representations of physical spaces in museums. It draws on a critical reflection of Gumbrecht’s (2004) notion of ‘presence culture’ and on an analysis and discussion of 3D digital scans at Manchester Art Gallery and Platt Hall in Manchester. After examining three overlapping stages in the relationship between 3D digital museums and presence (Digitised Presence, Digitally Present and Digital Presence), the chapter goes on to propose three new types of presence associated with how people experience 3D digital museum spaces: Simulated Presence, Stimulated Presence, and Emulated Presence. These types of presence highlight the value and role of people’s familiarity with the physical space in progressively inducting them into the 3D scan and enhancing their sense of place and presence. The chapter argues that this embodied familiarity stimulates and shapes people’s exploration of the 3D scan and allows them to emulate, that is to augment and re-imagine, both the physical space and its 3D digital counterpart. Based on this analysis, the chapter’s overall argument is that presence should be approached as a contextual psychological construct, which shifts the emphasis from technology-led sensory to context-led meaningful digital and virtual reality experiences.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMuseums and Technologies of Presence
EditorsMaria Shehade, Theopisti Stylianou-Lambert
Place of PublicationLondon
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9781003334316
ISBN (Print)9781032368801, 9781032368856
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2023

Publication series

NameRoutledge Research in Museum Studies


  • digital heritage
  • digital media
  • museums
  • museology
  • virtual reality
  • 3D


Dive into the research topics of 'Simulated, Stimulated, and Emulated Presence in 3D Digital Museums'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this