Mutations in the SMARCB1 gene are involved in several human tumor-predisposing syndromes. They were established as an underlying cause of the tumor suppressor syndrome schwannomatosis in 2008. There is a much higher rate of mutation detection in familial disease than in sporadic disease. We have performed extensive genetic testing on a cohort of familial and sporadic patients who fulfilled clinical diagnostic criteria for schwannomatosis. In our updated cohort, we identified novel mutations within the SMARCB1 gene as well as several recurrent mutations. Of the schwannomatosis screens reported to date, including those in our updated cohort, SMARCB1 mutations have been found in 45% of familial probands and 9% of sporadic patients. The exon 1 mutation, c.41C>A p.Pro14His (10% in our series), and the 3′ untranslated region mutation, c.*82C>T (27%), are the most common changes reported in patients with schwannomatosis to date, indicating the presence of mutation hot spots at both 5′ and 3′ portions of the gene. Comparison with germline SMARCB1 mutations in patients with rhabdoid tumors showed that the schwannomatosis mutations were significantly more likely to occur at either end of the gene and be nontruncating mutations (P <0.0001). SMARCB1 mutations are found in a significant proportion of schwannomatosis patients, and an even higher proportion of rhabdoid patients. Whereas SMARCB1 alone seems to account for rhabdoid disease, there is likely to be substantial heterogeneity in schwannomatosis even for familial disease. There is a clear genotype-phenotype correlation, with germline rhabdoid mutations being significantly more likely to be centrally placed, involve multiple exon deletions, and be truncating mutations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.