Soft novel form of white-etching matter and ductile failure of carbide-free bainitic steels under rolling contact stresses

W Solano-Alvarez, Edward Pickering, M. J. Peet, Katie Moore, J. Jaiswal, A. Bevan, H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    There has been a great deal of work on the formation of hard whiteetching
    regions in conventional bearing steels such as 1C-1.5Cr wt% when
    subjected repeatedly to rolling contact stresses. The regions are a consequence
    of localised mechanical attrition across microcrack faces and mixing,
    which refine the local structure and force cementite to dissolve. This whiteetching
    matter is often associated with brittle phenomena because the hardness
    can exceed 1100 HV. In contrast, carbide-free mixtures of bainitic ferrite
    and retained austenite when subjected to the same loading have been unexpectedly and white-etching layer grinding of rails.
    found not to develop the characteristic patches of hard material and
    to show instead signs of ductility in the attrited regions. The work presented
    here shows that the white-etching areas that develop in carbide-free bainite
    are softer than their surroundings, whether they are in hard nanostructured
    bainite destined for bearing applications or when the steel is designed for the
    manufacture of rails. Advanced characterisation tools were used for the first
    time to understand carbon redistribution during its formation. The deep interest
    about soft white-etching matter originates from the idea that it could
    lead to the reduction in premature failure of wind turbine gearbox bearings
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)215-226
    Number of pages12
    JournalActa Materialia
    Volume121
    Early online date17 Sept 2016
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2016

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