Sphingosine 1-phosphate activation of ERM contributes to vascular calcification

Thomas Morris, Samantha Borland, Christopher J Clarke, Claire Wilson, Yusuf A Hannun, Vasken Ohanian, Ann Canfield, Jacqueline Ohanian

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Vascular calcification is the deposition of mineral in the artery wall by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in response to pathological stimuli. The process is similar to bone formation and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Given that ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are involved in cardiovascular pathophysiology and biomineralization, their role in VSMC matrix mineralization was investigated. During phosphate-induced VSMC mineralization, endogenous S1P levels increased accompanied by increased sphingosine kinase (SK) activity and increased mRNA expression of SK1 and SK2. Consistent with this, mineralization was increased by exogenous S1P, but decreased by C2-ceramide. Mechanistically, exogenous S1P stimulated ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) phosphorylation in VSMCs and ERM phosphorylation was increased concomitantly with endogenous S1P during mineralization. Moreover, inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase and ceramidase with desipramine prevented increased S1P levels, ERM activation, and mineralization. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of ERM phosphorylation with NSC663894 decreased mineralization induced by phosphate and exogenous S1P. Although further studies will be needed to verify these findings in vivo, this study defines a novel role for the SK-S1P-ERM pathways in phosphate-induced VSMC matrix mineralization and shows that blocking these pathways with pharmacological inhibitors reduces mineralization. These results may inform new therapeutic approaches to inhibit or delay vascular calcification.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberDOI https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M079731
Pages (from-to)69-78
JournalJournal of Lipid Research
Early online date22 Nov 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018


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