Stochastic assessment of voltage dips caused by transformer energisation

Jinsheng Peng, Haiyu Li, Zhongdong Wang, F Ghassemi, P Jarman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Energisation of large power transformers may cause significant voltage dips, of which the severity largely depends on a number of parameters, including circuit breaker closing time, transformer core residual flux and core saturation characteristic, and network conditions. Since most of the parameters are of stochastic nature, Monte Carlo simulation was conducted in this study to stochastically assess the voltage dips caused by transformer energisation in a 400 {kV} grid, using a network model developed and validated against field measurements. A dip frequency pattern was identified over 1000 stochastic runs and it was found to be sensitive to residual flux distribution but insensitive to closing offset time distribution. The probability of reaching the worst case dip magnitude (estimated under the commonly agreed worst energisation condition) was found to be lower than 0.5\%; about 80\% of the dips are likely to be with magnitudes lower than 0.6 pu of the worst case. Nevertheless, there are dips with magnitudes exceeding the worst case dip magnitude, indicating the inadequacy of deterministic assessment approach by using the commonly agreed worst energisation condition.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1383-1390
Number of pages8
JournalGeneration, Transmission \& Distribution, {IET}
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • circuit breaker closing time
  • circuit breakers
  • closing offset time distribution
  • core saturation characteristic
  • deterministic assessment approach
  • dip frequency pattern
  • energisation condition
  • field measurements
  • Monte Carlo methods
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • network conditions
  • power transformers
  • probability
  • residual flux distribution
  • stochastic assessment
  • stochastic nature
  • stochastic processes
  • transformer core residual flux
  • transformer energisation
  • voltage 400 kV
  • voltage dips


Dive into the research topics of 'Stochastic assessment of voltage dips caused by transformer energisation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this