Structural and chemical changes of thermally treated bone apatite

Susan Essien Etok, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Timothy J. Wess, Jennifer C. Hiller, Clark A. Maxwell, Keith D. Rogers, David A C Manning, Margaret L. White, Elisa Lopez-Capel, Matthew J. Collins, Mike Buckley, Kirsty E H Penkman, Stephen L. Woodgate

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    The thermal behaviour of the animal by-product meat and bone meal (MBM) has been investigated in order to assess how it is affected structurally and chemically by incineration. Initially composed of intergrown collagen and hydroxyapatite (HAP), combustion of the organic component is complete by 650 °C, with most mass loss (50-55%) occurring by 500 °C. No original proteins were detected in samples heated at 400 °C or above. Combustion of collagen is accompanied by an increase in HAP mean crystallite size at temperatures greater than 400 °C, from 10 nm to a constant value of 120 nm at 800 °C or more. Newly formed crystalline phases appear beyond 400 °C, and include β-tricalcium phosphate, NaCaPO4, halite (NaCl) and sylvite (KCl). Crystallite thickness as judged by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) increases from 2 nm (25-400 °C) to 8-9 nm very rapidly at 550 °C, and then gradually increases to approximately 10 nm. The original texture of HAP within a collagen matrix is progressively lost, producing a porous HAP dominated solid at 700 °C, and a very low porosity sintered HAP product at 900 °C. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)9807-9816
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Materials Science
    Issue number23
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2007


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