Syntheses and properties of salts of chromophores with ferrocenyl electron donor groups and quaternary nitrogen acceptors

Benjamin J. Coe, Rebecca J. Docherty, Simon P. Foxon, Elizabeth C. Harper, Madeleine Helliwell, James Raftery, Koen Clays, Edith Franz, Bruce S. Brunschwig

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    A series of five new dipolar cations has been synthesized with ferrocenyl (Fc) electron donor groups connected to N-arylpyridinium, N-methylquinolinium, N-methylbenzothiazolium, or N-methylacridinium acceptors. Together with their known N-methylpyridinium analogue, these chromophores have been characterized as their PF6 - salts by using various techniques including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Nine single-crystal X-ray structures have been determined, including two polymorphs of one salt obtained from a single crystallization experiment and two of these are polar materials. A highly favorable degree of dipolar alignment for bulk NLO effects is observed in one case.Molecular quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) responses have been determined by using femtosecond hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) at 1300 nm and also via Stark (electroabsorption) spectroscopic studies on the intense π → π* intraligand and d → π* metal-to-ligand charge-transfer bands. A broad correlation between the electron acceptor strength and the HRS-derived first hyperpolarizabilities β and the static first hyperpolarizabilities β0 estimated from the Stark data is evident. This is the first time that meaningful (albeit indirectly determined) β0 data have been reported for Fc compounds, allowing quantitative comparisons with the chromophore in the technologically important material (E)-4′ -(dimethylamino)-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium (DAS) tosylate. The observed β0 values are in several cases similar to that of [DAS]PF6 and possibly even larger in one instance. © 2009 American Chemical Society.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)6880-6892
    Number of pages12
    Issue number24
    Publication statusPublished - 28 Dec 2009


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