Syntheses, calcium channel agonist-antagonist modulation activities, nitric oxide release, and voltage-clamp studies of 2-nitrooxyethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl- 3-nitro-4-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)pyridine-5-carboxylate enantiomers

Rudong Shan, Susan E. Howlett, Edward E. Knaus

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    The novel (-)-(S)-2 and (+)-(R)-3 enantiomers of 2-nitrooxyethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl- 3-nitro-4-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)pyridine-5-carboxylate were synthesized for evaluation as calcium channel modulators. Determination of their in vitro calcium-channel-modulating activities using guinea pig left atria (GPLA) and ileum longitudinal smooth muscle (GPILSM) showed that the (-)-(S)-2 enantiomer acted as a dual cardioselective calcium channel agonist (GPLA)/smooth muscle selective calcium channel antagonist (GPILSM). In contrast, the (+)-(R)-3 enantiomer exhibited calcium channel antagonist activity on both GPLA and GPILSM. The 2-nitrooxyethyl racemate is a nitric oxide (·NO) donor that released 2.7% ·NO, relative to the reference drug glyceryl trinitrate (5.3% ·NO release/ONO2 moiety), in the presence of N-acetylcysteamine. Whole-cell voltage-clamp studies using isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes indicated that both enantiomers inhibit calcium current but that the (-)-(S)-2 enantiomer is a weaker antagonist than the (+)-(R)-3 enantiomer. These results indicate that replacement of the methyl ester substituent of (-)-(S)-methyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl- 3-nitro-4-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)pyridine-5-carboxylate [(-)-(S)-1] by the 2-nitrooxyethyl ester ·NO donor substituent present in (-)-(S)-2 provides a useful drug design concept to abolish the contraindicated calcium channel agonist effect of (-)-(S)-1 on vascular smooth muscle. The novel (-)-(S)-2 enantiomer is a useful lead compound for drug discovery targeted toward the treatment of congestive heart failure, and it provides a useful probe to study the structurefunction relationships of calcium channels.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)955-961
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Medicinal Chemistry
    Volume45
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 14 Feb 2002

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