Synthesis of a novel monomer “DDTU-IDI” for the development of low-shrinkage dental resin composites

Zixuan Zhou, Aihua Li, Ke Sun, Di Guo, Tingting Li, Jun Lu, Bruna s.h. Tonin, Zhou Ye, David c. Watts, Ting Wang, Jing Fu

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The current dental resin composites often suffer from polymerization shrinkage, which can lead to microleakage and potentially result in recurring tooth decay. This study presents the synthesis of a novel monomer, (3,9-diethyl-1,5,7,11-tetraoxaspiro[5,5]undecane-3,9-diyl)bis(methylene) bis((2-(3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)phenyl)propan-2-yl)carbamate) (DDTU-IDI), and evaluates its effect in the formulation of low-shrinkage dental resin composites.

DDTU-IDI was synthesized through a two-step reaction route, with the initial synthesis of the required raw material monomer 3,9-diethyl-3,9-dihydroxymethyl-1,5,7,11-tetraoxaspiro-[5,5] undecane (DDTU). The structures were confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) spectroscopy. Subsequently, DDTU-IDI was incorporated into Bis-GMA-based composites at varying weight percentages (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%). The polymerization reaction, degree of conversion, polymerization shrinkage, mechanical properties, physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of the low-shrinkage composites were thoroughly evaluated. Furthermore, the mechanical properties were assessed after a thermal cycling test with 10,000 cycles to determine the stability.

The addition of DDTU-IDI at 10, 15, and 20 wt% significantly reduced the polymerization volumetric shrinkage of the experimental resin composites, without compromising the degree of conversion, mechanical and physicochemical properties. Remarkably, at a monomer content of 20 wt%, the polymerization shrinkage was reduced to 1.83 ± 0.53%. Composites containing 10, 15, and 20 wt% DDTU-IDI exhibited lower water sorption and higher contact angle. Following thermal cycling, the composites exhibited no significant decrease in mechanical properties, except for the flexural properties.

Significance. DDTU-IDI has favorable potential as a component which could produce volume expansion and increase rigidity in the development of low-shrinkage dental resin composites. The development of low-shrinkage composites containing DDTU-IDI appears to be a promising strategy for reducing polymerization shrinkage, thereby potentially enhancing the longevity of dental restorations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)608-618
JournalDental Materials
Issue number4
Early online date18 Feb 2024
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2024


  • Polymerization shrinkage
  • Monomer
  • Resin composites
  • Physical properties
  • Thermocycling


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