Targeting of Proteins for Translocation at the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The endoplasmic reticulum represents the gateway to the secretory pathway. Here, proteins destined for secretion, as well as soluble and membrane proteins that reside in the endomembrane system and plasma membrane, are triaged from proteins that will remain in the cytosol or be targeted to other cellular organelles. This process requires the faithful recognition of specific targeting signals and subsequent delivery mechanisms to then target them to the translocases present at the ER membrane, which can either translocate them into the ER lumen or insert them into the lipid bilayer. This review focuses on the current understanding of the first step in this process representing the targeting phase. Targeting is typically mediated by cleavable N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequences or internal membrane anchor sequences; these can either be captured co-translationally at the ribosome or recognised post-translationally and then delivered to the ER translocases. Location and features of the targeting sequence dictate which of several overlapping targeting pathway substrates will be used. Mutations in the targeting machinery or targeting signals can be linked to diseases.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3773
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 29 Mar 2022


  • GET
  • NAC
  • SND
  • Sec61 translocase
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • protein targeting
  • ribosome
  • signal recognition particle
  • signal sequence


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