Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 in biliary tract cancer; role and available data

Reem D. Mahmood, Kathryn Graham , Jack Gleeson, Richard A. Hubner, Juan W. Valle, Mairead G. Mcnamara

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


There is a critical need for novel therapies to treat patients with advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). This systematic review summarizes the evidence-based knowledge for the potential role of PD-1 and PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of patients with early-stage and advanced BTC. An Embase database search was conducted, identifying 15 eligible phase II/III clinical trials for review. Results from recent phase III trials show a statistically significant overall survival (OS) benefit from the addition of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors to chemotherapy in the first-line management of advanced BTC. Future research should concentrate on the discovery of biomarkers to identify patients who would benefit most from these therapies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)517-530
Number of pages14
Issue number7
Early online date3 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2023


  • Biliary tract cancer
  • cholangiocarcinoma
  • immunotherapy
  • PD-1 inhibitor
  • PD-L1 inhibitor
  • biliary tract cancer


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