Technological radicalness, R&D internationalization, and the moderating effect of intellectual property protection

Shukhrat Nasirov, Irina Gokh, Fragkiskos Filippaios

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Drawing on insights from the resource-based view of the firm, this paper examines the link between the radicalness of the firm's technologies and the extent of its exploitation and exploration R&D activities abroad, with an additional focus on the level of the host country's intellectual property (IP) protection as a force moderating this link. It uses information about greenfield foreign direct investment by 185 U.S. publicly-traded manufacturing firms in the period 2003–2013 to demonstrate that technological radicalness is positively associated with the number of exploration and exploitation R&D projects. While the level of IP protection is shown to have a moderating effect, this is nuanced: firms with more radical technologies pursue more exploration R&D projects in countries with stronger IP protection; in turn, the number of exploitation R&D projects is driven by those undertaken in countries with weaker IP protection. The findings have both managerial and policy implications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-227
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Business Research
Early online date9 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022


  • exploration vs. exploitation
  • intellectual property protection
  • manufacturing companies
  • R&D internationalization
  • technological radicalness
  • Intellectual property protection
  • Technological radicalness
  • Manufacturing companies
  • Exploration vs. exploitation

Research Beacons, Institutes and Platforms

  • Manchester Institute of Innovation Research


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