Telling, showing and knowing: A unified theory of pedagogical norms

Wesley Buckwalter, John Turri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Pedagogy is a pillar of human culture and society. Telling each other information and showing each other how to do things comes naturally to us. A strong case has been made that declarative knowledge is the norm of assertion, which is our primary way of telling others information. This article presents an analogous case for the hypothesis that procedural knowledge is the norm of instructional demonstration, which is a primary way of showing others how to do things. Knowledge is the norm of telling and showing. It is the prime pedagogical principle.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-20
Number of pages5
Issue number1
Early online date12 Dec 2013
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • knowledge
  • instruction
  • demonstration
  • assertion
  • culture


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