TGF-β activation and function in immunity

Mark A. Travis, Dean Sheppard

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    The cytokine TGF-β plays an integral role in regulating immune responses. TGF-β has pleiotropic effects on adaptive immunity, especially in the regulation of effector and regulatory CD4+ T cell responses. Many immune and nonimmune cells can produce TGF-β, but it is always produced as an inactive complex that must be activated to exert functional effects. Thus, activation of latent TGF-β provides a crucial layer of regulation that controls TGF-β function. In this review, we highlight some of the important functional roles for TGF-β in immunity, focusing on its context-specific roles in either dampening or promoting T cell responses. We also describe how activation of TGF-β controls its function in the immune system, with a focus on the key roles for members of the integrin family in this process. © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)51-82
    Number of pages31
    JournalAnnual review of immunology
    Early online date2 Dec 2013
    Publication statusPublished - 2014


    • Dendritic cells
    • Integrins
    • T cells
    • TGF-β
    • Th17 cells
    • Tregs


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