The association of herpes zoster and influenza vaccinations with the risk of developing dementia: a population-based cohort study within the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

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Abstract

Background
Dementia affects ability to remember, think, or make decisions that interfere with doing everyday activities. There is no cure, therefore any prevention or delay of the onset is of importance. This study aims to investigate the association between zoster and influenza vaccinations and the risk of developing dementia.

Methods
We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using electronic health records from 1469 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Aurum database with linked hospital episode statistics (HES) and Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality records. We built two 'matched cohorts': zoster vaccine (854,745 exposed individuals) matched with 8.8 million comparators without a history of zoster vaccination, and influenza vaccine (742,487 exposed individuals) matched with 7.12 million comparators without a history of vaccination as another comparator group. The cohorts were then followed to assess the association of exposure (vaccine) with outcome (dementia diagnosis).

Results
Zoster vaccination was associated with a lower risk of dementia diagnosis (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.78 with 95% CI: 0.77–0.79), Alzheimer’s diagnosis (adjusted HR 0.91 with 95% CI: 0.89–0.92 and other types of dementia (adjusted HR 0.71 with 95% CI: 0.69–0.72). Influenza vaccination also was associated with a slightly reduced hazard of dementia risk (adjusted HR 0.96 with 95% CI: 0.94–0.97).

Conclusion
Both zoster vaccine for prevention of shingles / herpes zoster and influenza vaccine to prevent influenza were associated with diminished risk of dementia, with the zoster association appearing more pronounced.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1903
Number of pages12
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2023

Keywords

  • Dementia
  • Zoster vaccination
  • Humans
  • Influenza, Human/epidemiology
  • Vaccination
  • Herpes Zoster Vaccine
  • Dementia/epidemiology
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Herpes Zoster/epidemiology
  • United Kingdom/epidemiology
  • Cohort Studies

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