The extracellular matrix is a complex and extremely important component of all biofilms, providing architectural structure and mechanical stability to the attached population. The matrix is composed of cells, water and secreted/released extracellular macromolecules. In addition, a range of enzymic and regulatory activities can be found within the matrix. Together, these different components and activities are likely to interact and in so doing create a series of local environments within the matrix which co-exist as a functional consortium. The matrix architecture is also subject to a number of extrinsic factors, including fluctuations in nutrient and gaseous levels and fluid shear. Together, these intrinsic and extrinsic factors combine to produce a dynamic, heterogeneous microenvironment for the attached and enveloped cells.