The effect of challenge and hindrance stressors on safety behavior and safety outcomes: A meta-analysis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The significance of occupational stressors as a risk factor in accidents has long been recognized; however,the behavioral mechanisms underlying this relationship are currently not well-understood. Meta-analysis was utilized to test the relationships between occupational stressors (challenge and hindrance), safety behaviors (compliance and participation), and safety outcomes (occupational injuries and near-misses). It was hypothesized that hindrance stressors would have negative effects on both safety compliance and safety participation, and subsequently, safety outcomes, whereas challenge stressors would have positive effects. The hypotheses relating to hindrance stressors were supported, suggesting that hindrance stressors lead to a significant reduction in both compliance with safety rules and participation in safety-related activities. Hindrance stressors were also associatedwith higher levels of occupational injuries and near-misses. The relationship between hindrance stressors and occupational injuries was fully mediated by safety behaviors. However, the hypotheses related to challenge stressors were not supported. Challenge stressors had a nonsignificant, near-zero association with compliance and occupational injuries, a small negative association with participation, and a small positive association with near-misses. The theoretical and practical implications of the meta-analytic findings are discussed, as well as avenuesfor further research. © 2012 American Psychological Association.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)387-397
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Occupational Health Psychology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012


  • Challenge stressors
  • Hindrance stressors
  • Occupational injuries
  • Safety compliance
  • Safety participation


Dive into the research topics of 'The effect of challenge and hindrance stressors on safety behavior and safety outcomes: A meta-analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this