The effect of loading direction on strain localisation in wire arc additively manufactured Ti–6Al–4V

David Lunt, Alistair Ho, Alec Davis, Allan Harte, Filomeno Martina, João Quinta da Fonseca, Phil Prangnell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ti-6Al-4V microstructures produced by high deposition rate Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) can be both heterogeneous and anisotropic. Key features of the as-built microstructures include; large columnar ß grains, an α transformation texture inherited from the  solidification texture, grain boundary (GB) α colonies, and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) banding. The effect of this heterogeneity on the local strain distribution has been investigated using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) in samples loaded in tension; parallel (WD), perpendicular (ND) and at 45° (45ND) to the deposited layers. Full-field surface strain maps were correlated to the underlying local texture. It is shown that loading perpendicular to the columnar  grains leads to a diffuse heterogeneous deformation distribution, due to the presence of regions containing hard, and soft, α microtextures within different parent  grains. The ‘soft’ regions correlated to multi-variant  colonies that did not contain a hard  variant unfavourably orientated for basal or prismatic slip. Far more severe strain localisation was seen in 45° ND loading at ‘soft’ β grain boundaries, where single variant α GB colonies favourably orientated for slip had developed during transformation. In comparison, when loaded parallel to the columnar ß grains, the strain distribution was relatively homogeneous and the HAZ bands did not show any obvious influence on strain localisation at the deposit layer-scale. However, when using high-resolution DIC, as well as more intense shear bands being resolved at the β grain boundaries during 45° ND loading, microscale strain localisation was observed in HAZ bands below the yield point within the thin white-etching α colony layer.
Original languageEnglish
Article number139608
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering A: Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructures and Processing
Early online date21 May 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 21 May 2020


  • titanium alloys
  • additive manufacturing
  • tensile
  • EBSD
  • digital image correlations
  • strain localisation


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