The European glacial landscapes prior to the Last Glacial Maximum - synthesis

Philip Hughes, David Palacios, Jose Maria García Ruiz, Nuria Andrés

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Some of the most extensive glaciations of the Pleistocene occurred prior to the Last Glacial Cycle (LGC) such as during the Elsterian Stage (Marine Isotope Stage, MIS 12) and the Saalian Stage (MIS 6) of Northern Continental Europe. However, the evidence of glaciation prior to the LGC is mixed across Europe. In some areas, there is a clear record of glaciation where glaciers were more extensive than during the Late Pleistocene, including in both the European Ice Sheet Complex of Northern Europe and the mountains of Southern Europe. In other areas the evidence for Middle Pleistocene glaciations is more limited or even absent. In most areas, however, there is evidence of a pre-Last Glacial Maximum glaciation within the LGC and commonly dates to glacier advances in MIS 4 and 3. European glacial cycles are in phase with those occurring in Asia, North and South America, with the same glacial landscape diversity as in Europe.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEuropean Glacial Landscapes: Maximum Extent of Glaciations
EditorsD. Palacios, P. Hughes, J.M. García-Ruiz, N. Andrés
Place of PublicationAmsterdam
PublisherElsevier BV
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9780128234983
Publication statusPublished - 18 Nov 2021


  • Middle Pleistocene
  • Saalian
  • Elsterian
  • Riss
  • Mindel
  • penultimate glacial cycle
  • MIS 6
  • MIS 12


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