The evolution of European Union citizenship

Dora Kostakopoulou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the 1990s most scholars saw European citizenship as a purely decorative and symbolic institution which added little new to the pre-Maastricht regime of free movement rights. In addition, many felt the need to defend the primacy of national citizenship by highlighting the derivative nature and weak content of European citizenship. Accordingly, its transformative potential remained at the margins of the debate. Despite such assessments, European Union citizenship has matured as an institution, owing to a number of important interventions by the European Court of Justice and legislative initiatives, such as the Citizenship Directive (Dir 200438).© 2008 European Consortium for Political Research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)285-295
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Political Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2008


  • European citizenship
  • European court of justice
  • Free movement rights
  • Postnationalism


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