Blood cell production originates from a rare population of multipotent, self-renewing stem cells. A genome-wide gene expression analysis was performed in order to define regulatory pathways in stem cells as well as their global genetic program. Subtracted complementary DNA libraries from highly purified murine fetal liver stem cells were analyzed with bioinformatic and array hybridization strategies. A large percentage of the several thousand gene products that have been characterized correspond to previously undescribed molecules with properties suggestive of regulatory functions. The complete data, available in a biological process-oriented database, represent the molecular phenotype of the hematopoietic stem cell.