The Growth of Epitaxial Gallium Phosphide from the Vapor Phase by Halogen Transport

A. Mottram, A. R. Peaker, P. D. Sudlow

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Gallium phosphide has been grown epitaxially by open tube vapor transport using the H2/PCl3/Ga system. Although GaAs substrates have been used for the majority of the work, the more recent use of Czochralski grown GaP has enabled a reduction in both strain and stacking fault density of the epitaxial layer to be achieved. Sulfur, tellurium, and zinc have been used as dopants in the preparation of both n- and p-type layers, and relationships have been established between the dopant level in the vapor stream and the carrier concentration in the grown crystal. A Schottky diode technique has been used to detect variations in doping level throughout the depth of a slice and, after modifications to the growth process, uniform doping levels have been established. Measurements of the dependence of mobility on carrier concentration over the range 1014-1019 cm-3 have been made on this substantially homogeneous material and consistent results obtained. The levels of compensation in n-type material have been shown to be between 1 and 2% over the range of carrier concentration 8 × 1016-2 × 1018 cm-3. The previously reported dependence of doping level on substrate orientation has been confirmed for (111) surfaces and extended to the (100) and (110) surfaces for homoepitaxy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)318-324
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 1971


  • doping gradients
  • epitaxial
  • gallium phosphide
  • halogen transport
  • vapor phase


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