The human fetal adrenal cortex and the window of sexual differentiation

Neil Hanley, Neil A. Hanley, Wiebke Arlt

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Understanding normal development is fundamental to appreciating postnatal morphology, physiology and, in some instances, pathophysiology. Developmental biology tends to interrogate models in nonprimate species, for instance the mouse, where genetic manipulation gives privileged insight into the function of particular genes. Some human developmental processes, as occur in the adrenal gland, are not faithfully reproduced in these rodent models, yet have an impact on the pathophysiology and treatment of endocrine disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this setting, in vitro research of normal human development complements clinical investigation of patients born with congenital disorders. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)391-397
    Number of pages6
    JournalTrends in Endocrinology and Metabolism
    Issue number10
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2006


    • embryology: Adrenal Cortex
    • etiology: Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital
    • biosynthesis: Androgens
    • Humans
    • Male
    • Models, Biological
    • physiology: Sex Differentiation
    • embryology: Testis


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