The incidence and prevalence of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis differs between ethnic groups in England

Richard P. Beesley, Kimme L. Hyrich, Jenny H. Humphreys

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a heterogenous group of rare autoimmune disorders characterised by chronic joint inflammation of unknown aetiology with onset under 16years. Accurate estimates of disease rates help understand impacts on individuals and society, and provide evidence for health service planning and delivery. This study aimed to produce the first national estimates of incidence and prevalence by ethnic group using electronic health records.

Data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Aurum, a primary care electronic health record database in England, were used to estimate the incidence and prevalence of JIA by ethnic group amongst children and young people aged under 16 years between 2003 and 2018, with cases validated using Hospital Episode Statistics (HES). Chi square was used to test the difference in proportions compared to the ethnic distribution of England.

A total of 424 incident cases of JIA were identified, 389 validated using HES records. Incidence of JIA was higher amongst those of White ethnic group (6.2 per 100,000 population) compared to Mixed (3.0 per 100,000), Asian (2.7 per 100,000) and Black (2.9 per 100,000) communities. The ethnic group distribution of cases differed significantly compared to the general population (p<0.0001).

Incidence and prevalence of JIA differs between ethnic groups, and is different from the population. This is likely to be due to a combination of genetic and equity factors. Further research to understand the underlying cause of these differences is important, to enable targeted interventions and appropriate service provision.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 7 Dec 2023


  • Ethnicity
  • Equity
  • Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
  • Incidence
  • Clinical Practice Research Datalink


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