The Jamaica Salt Consumption Study Protocol: Sodium Intake; Sodium Content in Restaurant Foods; Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices; Spot Urine Sodium Validation

Trevor S. Ferguson, Karen Webster-Kerr, Marshall K. Tulloch-Reid, Nadia R. Bennett, James Ho, Tamu Davidson, Andriene Grant, Kelly Ann Gordon-Johnson, Ishtar Govia, Suzanne Soares-Wynter, Novie Younger-Coleman, Joette McKenzie, Evelyn Walker, Simon Anderson, Sharmaine Edwards, Simone Spence

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Excess dietary salt consumption is a major contributor to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Public education programs on the dangers of high salt intake, and population level interventions to reduce the salt content in foods are possible strategies to address this problem. In Jamaica, there are limited data on the levels of salt consumption and the population's knowledge and practices with regards to salt consumption. This study therefore aims to obtain baseline data on salt consumption, salt content in foods sold in restaurants, and evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Jamaicans regarding salt consumption. Methods: The study is divided into four components. Component 1 will be a secondary analysis of data on urinary sodium from spot urine samples collected as part of a national survey, the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2016-2017. Component 2 will be a survey of chain and non-chain restaurants in Jamaica, to estimate the sodium content of foods sold in restaurants. Component 3 is another national survey, this time on a sample 1,200 individuals to obtain data on knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding salt consumption and estimation of urinary sodium excretion. Component 4 is a validation study to assess the level of agreement between spot urine sodium estimates and 24-hour urinary sodium from 120 individuals from Component 3. Discussion: This study will provide important baseline data on salt consumption in Jamaica and will fulfil the first components of the World Health Organization SHAKE Technical Package for Salt Reduction. The findings will serve as a guide to Jamaica's Ministry of Health and Wellness in the development of a national salt reduction program. Findings will also inform interventions to promote individual and population level sodium reduction strategies as the country seeks to achieve the national target of a 30% reduction in salt consumption by 2025.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)721
Number of pages1
JournalF1000Research
Volume11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Jamaica
  • knowledge attitudes and practices
  • restaurant foods
  • salt intake
  • salt reduction strategies
  • sodium content
  • urinary sodium

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