The loading on a vertical cylinder in steep and breaking waves on sheared currents using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

Yong Yang, Peter k. Stansby, Benedict d. Rogers, Eugeny Buldakov, Dimitris Stagonas, Samuel Draycott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Waves and currents coexist in a wide range of natural locations for the deployment of offshore structures and devices. This combined wave-current environment largely determines the loading of vertical surface piercing cylinders, which are the foundations typically used for offshore wind turbines along with many other offshore structures. The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code DualSPHysics is used to simulate focused waves on sheared currents and assess subsequent loading on a vertical cylinder. Outputs from another numerical model are used to define the SPH inlet-outlet boundary conditions to generate the wave-current combinations. A modified damping zone is used to damp the waves but allow the currents to exit the domain. Numerical results are validated against experimental measurements for surface elevation and associated loading on the cylinder. Four phase repeats are used in the SPH model to understand the harmonic structure of the surface elevation at the front face of the cylinder and associated loading. It is shown that the SPH model provides agreement with experimental measurements of harmonic components for both force and elevations. Taking advantage of the SPH method, wave amplitudes were increased up to, and beyond, the breaking threshold highlighting a complex relationship between peak force and wave phase, requiring detailed investigation. The numerical modelling of interactions of steep and breaking waves on sheared currents with the cylinder demonstrates the SPH model’s capability for modelling highly nonlinear fluid-structure interaction problems.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysics of Fluids
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2023


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