The Manchester Respiratory-related Sleep Symptoms scale for patients with COPD: development and validation: MaRRS

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: In COPD disturbed sleep is related to exacerbation frequency, poor quality of life, and early mortality. We developed the Manchester Respiratory-related Sleep Symptoms scale (MaRSS) to assess sleep-time symptoms in COPD.
Methods: Focus groups including COPD and age-matched controls were used to develop an item-list, which was then administered to COPD patients and age-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Hierarchical and Rasch analysis informed item selection and scale unidimensionality. Construct validity was examined using Pearson’s correlation with the Sleep Problems Index, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and FACIT-Fatigue scale. MaRSS change scores from baseline (stable) to exacerbation were assessed in a separate substudy of COPD patients.
Results: Thirty-six COPD patients and nine age-matched controls produced an initial 26-item list. The cross-sectional study involved 203 COPD patients (male: 63%, mean age 64.7 years) and 50 age-matched controls (male: 56%, mean age 65.8 years). Eighteen items were removed to develop an eight-item unidimensional scale covering breathlessness, chest tightness, cough, sputum production, lack of sleep, and medication use. MaRSS scores significantly correlated with sleep problems, SGRQ Total, and FACIT-Fatigue (r=0.58–0.62) and demonstrated a good fit to the Rasch model (chi-squared=29.2; P=0.04). In the substudy, MaRSS scores demonstrated a moderate effect size from baseline to exacerbation visit in 27 patients with 32 exacerbation episodes (Cohen’s d=0.6).
Conclusion: The MaRSS is a reliable, valid, and clinically responsive measure of respiratory-related symptoms that disturb sleep. It is simple to use and score, making it suitable for research and clinical practice.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3885-3894
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of COPD
Early online date29 Nov 2018
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • COPD
  • Symptoms
  • Quality of life (QoL)


Dive into the research topics of 'The Manchester Respiratory-related Sleep Symptoms scale for patients with COPD: development and validation: MaRRS'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this