The Positive and Negative Sleep Appraisal Measure: Towards a clinical validation of sleep spectrum cognitions

Lydia Pearson, Warren Mansell, Sophie Parker

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Background: Sleep disturbance is considered a transdiagnostic process due to high comorbidity with mental health difficulties. In particular, sleep disturbances are a feature of mood disorders. To advance transdiagnostic psychological interventions targeting sleep, the Positive and Negative Sleep Appraisal Measure (PANSAM) was developed. The PANSAM is a theory-driven measure based on an Integrative Cognitive Sleep Model and proposes that positive and negative sleep appraisals for excessively long and short sleep durations play a key role in the development of insomnia, hypersomnia, and reduced need for sleep. This study evaluated clinical validity of this new measure. Methods: Participants were those who met bipolar at risk criteria and bipolar diagnoses (bipolar spectrum group) (N = 22), major depressive disorder (unipolar depression group) (N = 18), and a nonclinical group (N = 22). To compare against previous insomnia and bipolar disorder relevant research, administered measures included the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale (DBAS) and the Hypomanic and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI). Results: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests revealed that the clinical groups scored significantly higher on the PANSAM. The same was shown for the DBAS and HAPPI. Post hoc analyses showed that the PANSAM scale and subscales had significant correlations with all clinical measures. Effect sizes are reported due to sample size limitations. Conclusion: This study has initially validated the PANSAM with clinical populations and highlighted its applicability to a transdiagnostic approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)687-697
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Issue number2
Early online date23 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • appraisal
  • cognition
  • hypersomnia
  • insomnia
  • sleep
  • transdiagnostic


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