The youngest occurrence of ichthyosaur embryos in the UK: A new specimen from the Early Jurassic (Toarcian) of Yorkshire.

Mike Boyd, D R Lomax

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

    Abstract

    We address two long-standing survey research problems: measuring complicated concepts, such as political freedom and efficacy, that researchers define best with reference to examples; and what to do when respondents interpret identical questions in different ways. Scholars have long addressed these problems with approaches to reduce incomparability, such as writing more concrete questionswith uneven success. Our alternative is to measure directly response category incomparability and to correct for it.We measure incomparability via respondents assessments, on the same scale as the self-assessments to be corrected, of hypothetical individuals described in short vignettes. Because the actual (but not necessarily reported) levels of the vignettes are invariant over respondents, variability in vignette answers reveals incomparability. Our corrections require either simple recodes or a statistical modeldesigned to save survey administration costs.With analysis, simulations,andcross-national surveys, we showhowresponse incomparability can drastically mislead survey researchers and howour approach can alleviate this problem.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2018

    Publication series

    NameProceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society

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