TY - JOUR

T1 - Thermodynamic and physical properties of solids in electric fields

AU - Munn, R. W.

PY - 1973/11/13

Y1 - 1973/11/13

N2 - A new rotationally invariant electric displacement variable is defined as the thermodynamic conjugate of the rotationally invariant electric field variable. Piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties defined in terms of these thermodynamic variables have the full symmetry conferred by Maxwell relations. However, analogous properties defined in terms of the usual physical electrical variables in general differ from the thermodynamic properties, and do not obey Maxwell relations. The differences depend on the electrical conditions, but are nonzero in pyroelectric crystals even at zero electric field, because of the spontaneous polarization. This situation resembles that found for thermoelastic properties, which differ according to whether they are defined in terms of the physical Cauchy stress or the thermodynamic stresses (tensions). In each case analogous quantities coincide only at constant strain and rotation.

AB - A new rotationally invariant electric displacement variable is defined as the thermodynamic conjugate of the rotationally invariant electric field variable. Piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties defined in terms of these thermodynamic variables have the full symmetry conferred by Maxwell relations. However, analogous properties defined in terms of the usual physical electrical variables in general differ from the thermodynamic properties, and do not obey Maxwell relations. The differences depend on the electrical conditions, but are nonzero in pyroelectric crystals even at zero electric field, because of the spontaneous polarization. This situation resembles that found for thermoelastic properties, which differ according to whether they are defined in terms of the physical Cauchy stress or the thermodynamic stresses (tensions). In each case analogous quantities coincide only at constant strain and rotation.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=35949032113&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/0022-3719/6/22/008

DO - 10.1088/0022-3719/6/22/008

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:35949032113

SN - 0022-3719

VL - 6

SP - 3213

EP - 3222

JO - Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics

JF - Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics

IS - 22

ER -