Three-dimensional free convection in molten gallium

A. Juel, T. Mullin, H. Ben Hadid, D. Henry

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Convective flow of molten gallium is studied in a small-aspect-ratio rectangular, differentially heated enclosure. The three-dimensional nature of the steady flow is clearly demonstrated by quantitative comparison between experimental temperature measurements, which give an indication of the strength of the convective flow, and the results of numerical simulations. The three-dimensional flow structure is characterized by cross-flows which are an order of magnitude smaller than the main circulation, and spread from the endwall regions to the entire enclosure when the Grashof number is increased beyond Gr = 104. The mergence of these effects in the centre of the enclosure leads to a complex central divergent flow structure which underpins the observed transition to oscillatory convection.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)267-281
    Number of pages14
    JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
    Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2001


    • Convective flow; Grashof number; Prandtl number (three-dimensional free convection in molten gallium small-aspect-ratio rectangular differentially heated enclosure)


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