Tobacco smoking and risk of all-cause mortality in Indonesia

Holipah Holipah, Hikmawan Sulistomo, Asri Maharani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Tobacco is well known as a risk factor for early morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the relative risk of mortality and the effects of smoking vary among the countries. Indonesia, as one of the world’s largest market for smoking tobacco, is significantly affected by tobacco-related illness. Previous research has shown that smoking causes several diseases, including stroke, neoplasm and coronary heart disease. There has to date been no research on the hazard risk of smoking for all-cause mortality in Indonesia. This study aimed to identify the association between smoking and all-cause mortality rates in Indonesia. Information from a total of 3,353 respondents aged 40 years and older was collected in this study. The data were taken from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) Wave 4 (2007) to collect personal information and determine smoking status and from Wave 5 (2015) to collect information about deaths. Current smokers make up 40.3% of Indonesia’s population. Current smokers were more likely to have a higher risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.11 to 1.98) than non-current smokers. The number of smokers in Indonesia remains high and is expected to increase gradually every year. A firm government policy is needed to reduce the number of smokers in Indonesia which would automatically reduce the health problem of smoking-related illness in the future.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0242558
Pages (from-to)e0242558
Number of pages12
JournalPL o S One
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020


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