Toward automatic simulation of aging effects on face images

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    The process of aging causes significant alterations in the facial appearance of individuals. When compared with other sources of variation in face images, appearance variation due to aging displays some unique characteristics. For example, aging variation is specific to a given individual; it occurs slowly and is affected significantly by other factors, such as health, gender, and lifestyle. Changes in facial appearance due to aging can even affect discriminatory facial features, resulting in deterioration of the ability of humans and machines to identify aged individuals. In this paper, we describe how the effects of aging on facial appearance can be explained using learned age transformations and present experimental results to show that reasonably accurate estimates of age can be made for unseen images. We also show that we can improve our results by taking into account the fact that different individuals age in different ways and by considering the effect of lifestyle. Our proposed framework can be used for simulating aging effects on new face images in order to predict how an individual might look like in the future or how he/she used to look in the past. The methodology presented has also been used for designing a face recognition system, robust to aging variation. In this context, the perceived age of the subjects in the training and test images is normalized before the training and classification procedure so that aging variation is eliminated. Experimental results demonstrate that, when age normalization is used, the performance of our face recognition system can be improved.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)442-455
    Number of pages13
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2002


    • Aging variation
    • Face recognition
    • Statistical face models


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