Towards extracellular Ca2+ sensing by MRI: Synthesis and calcium-dependent 1H and 17O relaxation studies of two novel bismacrocyclic Gd3+ complexes

Nikos Logothetis, Kirti Dhingra, Petra Fousková, Goran Angelovski, Martin E. Maier, Nikos K. Logothetis, Éva Tóth

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    Two new bismacrocyclic Gd3+ chelates containing a specific Ca2+ binding site were synthesized as potential MRI contrast agents for the detection of Ca2+ concentration changes at the millimolar level in the extracellular space. In the ligands, the Ca2+-sensitive BAPTA-bisamide central part is separated from the DO3A macrocycles either by an ethylene (L1) or by a propylene (L2) unit [H 4BAPTA is 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′- tetraacetic acid; H3DO3A is 1,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid]. The sensitivity of the Gd 3+ complexes towards Ca2+ and Mg2+ was studied by 1H relaxometric titrations. A maximum relaxivity increase of 15 and 10% was observed upon Ca2+ binding to Gd2L1 and Gd2L2, respectively, with a distinct selectivity of Gd2L1 towards Ca2+ compared with Mg 2+. For Ca2+ binding, association constants of log K = 1.9 (Gd2L1) and log K = 2.7 (Gd2L2) were determined by relaxometry. Luminescence lifetime measurements and UV-vis spectrophotometry on the corresponding Eu3+ analogues proved that the complexes exist in the form of monohydrated and nonhydrated species; Ca 2+ binding in the central part of the ligand induces the formation of the monohydrated state. The increasing hydration number accounts for the relaxivity increase observed on Ca2+ addition. A 1H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion and 17O NMR study on Gd 2L1 in the absence and in the presence of Ca2+ was performed to assess the microscopic parameters influencing relaxivity. On Ca2+ binding, the water exchange is slightly accelerated, which is likely related to the increased steric demand of the central part leading to a destabilization of the Ln-water binding interaction. © 2007 SBIC.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)35-46
    Number of pages11
    JournalJournal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry
    Volume13
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2008

    Keywords

    • Calcium sensitive
    • Lanthanide complexes
    • Luminescence
    • MRI contrast agents
    • Relaxivity

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