Strategies to bone tissue engineering have focused on the use of synthetic or natural degradable materials as scaffolds for cell transplantation to guide bone regeneration. Biocompatibility, biodegradability, biomechanical integrity, and osteoconductivity are important requirements for the scaffold materials. This study explored a new approach of apatite coating to enhance the osteoconductivity of a synthetic degradable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic. acid) (PLGA) scaffold. The new approach was developed to ensure a relatively uniform apatite coating on the interior pore surfaces deep inside a scaffold, even for a relatively thick scaffold with small pores. Apatite was first coated on the surface of paraffin spheres of the desirable sizes. The paraffin spheres were then molded to form a foam. PLGA/pyridine solution was cast into the interspaces among the paraffin spheres. After the paraffin spheres were dissolved and removed by cyclohexane, PLGA scaffold with controlled pore size, good interconnectivity and high porosity was obtained with apatite left on the pore surface uniformly throughout the whole scaffold. The scaffold and apatite coating were characterized using thermogravimetry analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- tissue engineering
- poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (plga)
- calcium-phosphate coatings
- gelatin-siloxane hybrids
- biomimetic process