We report the case of an 8-year-old child who presented with severe hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia due to a pancreatic islet cell adenoma. In vivo, there was no beneficial response to the hyperglycaemia-inducing agent diazoxide and as a consequence the child underwent a subtotal pancreatectomy. In vitro studies of adenomatous β-cells revealed no operational defects in ATP-sensitive potassium channel activity and appropriate responses to diazoxide. In comparison with patients with focal adenomatous hyperplasia, genetic analysis of the isolated adenoma showed no loss of heterozygosity for chromosome 11p15 and expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57kip2. This case illustrates that the excess insulin secretion from an infantile adenoma has an aetiology different from that observed in hyperinsulinism in infancy.