Unconventional quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase of 2π in bilayer graphene

K. S. Novoselov, E. McCann, S. V. Morozov, V. I. Fal'ko, M. I. Katsnelson, U. Zeitler, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, A. K. Geim

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    There are two known distinct types of the integer quantum Hall effect. One is the conventional quantum Hall effect, characteristic of two-dimensional semiconductor systems, and the other is its relativistic counterpart observed in graphene, where charge carriers mimic Dirac fermions characterized by Berry's phase π, which results in shifted positions of the Hall plateaus. Here we report a third type of the integer quantum Hall effect. Charge carriers in bilayer graphene have a parabolic energy spectrum but are chiral and show Berry's phase 2π affecting their quantum dynamics. The Landau quantization of these fermions results in plateaus in Hall conductivity at standard integer positions, but the last (zero-level) plateau is missing. The zero-level anomaly is accompanied by metallic conductivity in the limit of low concentrations and high magnetic fields, in stark contrast to the conventional, insulating behaviour in this regime. The revealed chiral fermions have no known analogues and present an intriguing case for quantum-mechanical studies. © 2006 Nature Publishing Group.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)177-180
    Number of pages3
    JournalNature Physics
    Volume2
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 10 Mar 2006

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