Unfolded protein response in hepatitis C virus infection

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    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus of clinical importance. The virus establishes a chronic infection and can progress from chronic hepatitis, steatosis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanisms of viral persistence and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular homeostatic response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, has emerged to be a major contributing factor in many human diseases. It is also evident that viruses interact with the host UPR in many different ways and the outcome could be pro-viral, anti-viral or pathogenic, depending on the particular type of infection. Here we present evidence for the elicitation of chronic ER stress in HCV infection. We analyze the UPR signaling pathways involved in HCV infection, the various levels of UPR regulation by different viral proteins and finally, we propose several mechanisms by which the virus provokes the UPR. © 2014 Chan.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article numberArticle 233
    JournalFrontiers in Microbiology
    Issue numberMAY
    Publication statusPublished - 2014


    • Endoplasmic reticulum stress
    • Hepacivirus
    • Hepatitis C virus
    • Unfolded protein response
    • Virus-host interaction


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