Update on the treatment of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

Darius Armstrong-James, Chris Kosmidis, Mike Bromley

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of review: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is a major global infection in individuals with preexisting structural lung diseases and those with immunodeficiencies, in particular cytokine defects. Current treatment options are confined to just three drug classes, the triazoles, the echinocandins and amphotericin B. However, antifungal resistance is rapidly emerging for the triazoles, the only available oral therapy for this chronic condition. Recent findings: Fortunately, there are now a number of novel antifungals in the development pipeline, mostly now in Phase 3 studies, with a potential for the treatment of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. However, almost all current randomized triazoles of novel antifungals are primarily undertaken in patients with invasive candidiasis or invasive mould infections. Given the poor outcomes from treatment with antifungals in chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, in part associated with triazole resistance, we urgently need clinical trials of novel agents either as monotherapy or in combination for this disease. In addition, there is an emerging understanding of the role of immunotherapies for the treatment of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, especially in the context of cytokine defects. Therefore, better understanding of the role of adjunctive immunotherapies such as interferon-gamma is also required. Summary: In this review, we give an overview of current management of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, and novel antifungals and immunotherapies for the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-151
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023


  • antifungal immunotherapy
  • chronic pulmonary aspergillosis
  • novel antifungals
  • triazole resistance


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